Home Educational Statistics in Brief Definitions Thai Education System

Definitions Thai Education System

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Definitions Thai Education System

The National EducationAct B.E.2542 (revised B.E.2545) and the Compulsory Education Act B.E.2545 state that there shall be three types of education: formal, non-formal and informal.

1. Formal education shall specify the aims, methods, curricula duration assessment, and evaluation conditional to its completion.

2. Non-formal education shall have flexibility in determining the aims, modalities, management procedures, duration, assessment and evaluation conditional to its completion. The contents and curricula for non-formal education shall be appropriate, respond to the requirements, and meet the needs of individual groups of learners.

3. Informal education shall enable learners  to learn by themselves according to their interests, potentialities, readiness and opportunities available from individuals, society, environment, media, or other sources of knowledge.

Formal education is divided into two levels : basic education and higher education.

1. Basic Education

         Basic Education is divided into three levels, i.e., pre-elementary level, elementary level,and secondary level.

1.1 Pre-elementary Level

                  At the pre-elementary Level, students are offered a two-year course in public pre-elementary schools and a three-year course in private pre-elementary school. pre-elementary education aims to nurture and prepare physical, mental, intellectual and emotional skills for students for their further movement no to the elementary  education.

                 Apart from pre-elementary schools and kindergatens, pre-elementary education is also provided in Child Care Centers and Child Development Centres , depending on the target groups and their local areas.

1.2 Elementary Level

                   At the elementary level, students undergoes at last six year of elementary education as a compulsory education, Elementary education puts emphasis on basic literacy and numeracy skills and cultivates desirable behavior in student. 

1.3 Secondary Level

                  Secondary education is divided into two levels; lower and upper secondary levels.

     (a) Lower Secondary Level

                       Lower secondary education offers a three-year course which is geared toward developing the students’ ethics, knowledge and abilities. It allows the students to explore their needs , areas of interests and aptitudes and enables them to meet their appropriate careers.

      (b) Upper Secondary Level

                        Upper secondary education is a three-year course as a fundamental stage for students who will proceed to higher education. It also aims to prepare student to meet the labour market and to promote their entrepreneurship skills. There are two streams; vocational-oriented is provided in vocational and technical colleges for the student who are good at skills while academic stream is offered in general education schools for the students who are academically inclined.

2. Higher Level

          It is a post-secondary education which is divided into two levels; diploma and degree levels.

2.1 Diploma Level

                 At the diploma level, school offer one to four-year course for the student who have completed upper secondary education. At the and of upper secondary three, the students in vocational stream can enter either vocational institutions or universities to continue their vocational courses for their vocational diploma.On the other hand, the student in academic stream, on obtaining academic certificate can proceed to the colleges and universities to attend either vocational or academic course. The diploma course  aims to develop the learners’ knowledge and vocational skills at the semi-skills level and to enable them to initiate their entrepreneurships.

2.2 Degree Level

                  Degree level consist of two levels, i.e. undergraduate levels.

(a) Undergraduate Level

                        Undergraduate normally offer a four-year course, with an exception of some courses, for instance, Architecture, Medical Science, etc require five to six year of study. The students who have completed upper secondary education, sitting entrance examination go on to the technological and educational institutions and attend four to six-year course for their Bachelor’s degree. As for the students who have been given diploma, after sitting entrance examination can take a two-year course to pursue their first degree in higher technological and educational institutions. The aim of undergraduate degree course is to develop the students’ abilities and disciplines. Students are also expected apply theories to practices and to spread their knowledge across the groups of people. They are encouraged to apply theories to a reality of the nation’s development so that they can bring their country up to the international challenges.

(b) Graduate Level

                         Graduate degree offers one to three-year courses to the learners at the graduate diploma, master degree and doctoral degree levels. Students are stimulated to specialize and bring theories to practices. Graduate course develops the students, vocational and academic talents and enable them to progress at their own careers. The learning process focuses on the learners’ broader vision and better perspectives for looking at the world and bringing the nation to the international competition. The application of international knowledge and folk wisdom for the nation’s development is also the curricula emhases at this level.

                  The following types of education are organized with due consideration both to characteristics and needs of target groups, and to the goals of enhancing balanced development of individual’s morality, knowledge, ability and skills.

                    1. Teacher education aims to train and develop perspective as well as practicing teacher to acquire morality, knowledge, ability and skills in teaching and motivating learners to learn; to be mindful of professionalism, spirit and responsibility of teachers; to serve as a role model for learners regarding social behavior, life style and preservation of the national language and culture; to develop an inquiring mind and engage in continuous improvement of themselves and their teaching capability; and to engage in community development, as well as in rehabilitation, conservation and enrichment of local and national environment and culture.

                    2. Vocational education aims to enable learns to develop vocational knowledge and skills used for working both as entrepreneurs and as employees; and to make decent living

                       Vocational education can be organized in both formal and non-formal school systems, Vocational education in the formal school system is a development of occupational knowledge and skills relevant to each level of education from primary to higher levels. Vocational education in the non-formal school system is short-course training is specific occupations for those who need to upgrade their knowledge and skills.

                     3. Special vocational education aims to enable learners to train and develop specific vocational skills and expertise which require a long period of training from childhood, such as dancing, music and sports. It may be provided in special institutes created for the purpose or incorporated in the general curricula.

                      4. Vocational education for specific groups aims to enhance learner’s vocational knowledge and skills in accordance which specific needs of certain agencies, or characteristics and needs of specific groups but it is not provided in general educational institutions. It must comply with the State’s national policy directives.

                      5. Special education aims to enable learners who are physically, mentally, psychologically, and emotionally handicapped to join learning processes suitable for their conditions and capability. Special education can be provided in special institutes or in general educational institutions from pre-elementary to higher education levels.

                     6. Welfare education or education for the disadvantaged is especially designed for children to promote equal access to education for children who are in accessible to normal education. This type of education can be offered in special or mainstreaming schools.

                    7. Other types of education or purposive education aims to enhance learner’s knowledge and skills relating to particular purposes and needs of agencies providing education, for instance, courses on nursing, and transport and telecommunication; and courses for military and police cadets.

alt

Gross Domestic Products (GDP)     is the value of all goods and services which have been produced

                                                    in the country for a definite time period (in year).

National Budget (N.B.)       is the sum of the national budget expenditured by all sectors each year.

Educational Budget (E.B.)    is the national education expenditures of all educational agencies / institutions.

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Last Updated on Friday, 15 January 2016 13:27  

Home Educational Statistics in Brief Definitions Thai Education System

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